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  • 13 Aug 2018
    Each and every day, we experience a symphony of sounds to make our lives richer writes Stuart Colam, Acoustic Engineer, SAS International. From the dawn chorus to the soothing sounds of a gentle stream, and the less desirable noises such as machinery and a baby crying; the auditory stimulus around us is vast and elicits a specific response in our minds. But what specifically issound? How is it made? How does it travel? And why can we hear it? If air was visible then it might make it easier to explain, but sound is essentially bits of air vibrating. These air molecules vibrate and bump into each other, which in turn results in a local increase in air pressure. This chain reaction happens quickly, with the speed of sound in air being about 770mph. One way to illustrate this is by a slinky spring sending pulses backwards and forwards along its length. If nothing makes your eardrum move you will not hear anything. If there is no variation in the air pressure there is no sound.  Air pressure varies with height, decreasing with increasing altitude. In other words, there are fewer air molecules at 8000 metres than at sea level, for instance. This is why at the summit of Mount Everest the air is thinner.   Chain reaction Something needs to happen to make the air molecules move, i.e. for sound to be produced. When this occurs, one molecule will bump into another and this chain reaction results in the molecules being closer together than they would have been. An increase in pressure commences, as the molecules are essentially being squashed together and passing on vibrational energy; molecule to molecule.  The movement of air propagates and that’s what we call sound. As they bump into each other there is an increase and decrease in air pressure. This push and pull of sound waves reaches your ear and vibrates your eardrum. This ultimately results in electrical signals being sent to your brain and interpreted as sound.  Sound travels at different speeds depending on the medium. In steel, sound travels 17 times faster than in air, while in water it travels about four times faster. Think about when you are swimming in the sea and how hard it is to gauge where the noise of a boat engine is coming from. Sound travels more efficiently and faster through water than air. All sound needs is something to vibrate and bump into, which is why in space the absence of molecules makes it impossible to transmit any kind of sound. Sound in the built environment is sometimes overlooked and should be an important consideration.  When designing modern interiors there is much more than meets the eye – we must consider the ear as well.  It’s an issue that has become particularly important due to the proliferation of open and agile working environments. Sweeping interiors are prominent in today’s commercial buildings; therefore there is a growing demand for ceiling designs to suit these interiors, whilst still controlling sound travel.  It’s why metal ceilings have become the go-to solution that ensures these open-plan designs are not jeopardised by noise levels. A client might well place greater emphasis on aesthetics, but a good design must deliver effective sound management and an acoustic landscape which positively impacts on the productivity and wellbeing of building occupants. Visit:  https://sasintgroup.com
    60 Posted by Talk. Build
  • Each and every day, we experience a symphony of sounds to make our lives richer writes Stuart Colam, Acoustic Engineer, SAS International. From the dawn chorus to the soothing sounds of a gentle stream, and the less desirable noises such as machinery and a baby crying; the auditory stimulus around us is vast and elicits a specific response in our minds. But what specifically issound? How is it made? How does it travel? And why can we hear it? If air was visible then it might make it easier to explain, but sound is essentially bits of air vibrating. These air molecules vibrate and bump into each other, which in turn results in a local increase in air pressure. This chain reaction happens quickly, with the speed of sound in air being about 770mph. One way to illustrate this is by a slinky spring sending pulses backwards and forwards along its length. If nothing makes your eardrum move you will not hear anything. If there is no variation in the air pressure there is no sound.  Air pressure varies with height, decreasing with increasing altitude. In other words, there are fewer air molecules at 8000 metres than at sea level, for instance. This is why at the summit of Mount Everest the air is thinner.   Chain reaction Something needs to happen to make the air molecules move, i.e. for sound to be produced. When this occurs, one molecule will bump into another and this chain reaction results in the molecules being closer together than they would have been. An increase in pressure commences, as the molecules are essentially being squashed together and passing on vibrational energy; molecule to molecule.  The movement of air propagates and that’s what we call sound. As they bump into each other there is an increase and decrease in air pressure. This push and pull of sound waves reaches your ear and vibrates your eardrum. This ultimately results in electrical signals being sent to your brain and interpreted as sound.  Sound travels at different speeds depending on the medium. In steel, sound travels 17 times faster than in air, while in water it travels about four times faster. Think about when you are swimming in the sea and how hard it is to gauge where the noise of a boat engine is coming from. Sound travels more efficiently and faster through water than air. All sound needs is something to vibrate and bump into, which is why in space the absence of molecules makes it impossible to transmit any kind of sound. Sound in the built environment is sometimes overlooked and should be an important consideration.  When designing modern interiors there is much more than meets the eye – we must consider the ear as well.  It’s an issue that has become particularly important due to the proliferation of open and agile working environments. Sweeping interiors are prominent in today’s commercial buildings; therefore there is a growing demand for ceiling designs to suit these interiors, whilst still controlling sound travel.  It’s why metal ceilings have become the go-to solution that ensures these open-plan designs are not jeopardised by noise levels. A client might well place greater emphasis on aesthetics, but a good design must deliver effective sound management and an acoustic landscape which positively impacts on the productivity and wellbeing of building occupants. Visit:  https://sasintgroup.com
    Aug 13, 2018 60
  • 10 Aug 2018
    The average UK household spends around £1,230 on fuel bills each year which can be up to 50% more than necessary due to the lack of energy saving measures being implemented in the home. Poor insulation is a major contributor to domestic energy wastage. To help combat this, the construction industry is increasingly turning to rigid foam PIR panels, rather than mineral fibre-based insulation solutions. Kevin Bohea, Commercial Director at leading UK PIR manufacturers, lists five ways in which insulation boards offer an advantage over the mineral-based equivalent. PIR insulation board has a closed cell structure that means it doesn’t absorb water. This allows the thermal performance and reliability of the panel to be retained over time. The panels are light and easy to transport as well as being simple to install, helping save on-site labour costs. Unlike fibrous insulation which deteriorates over time when damp sets in, PIR insulation’s structural strength enables a consistent performance that will last the lifetime of a building, negating costly repairs and maintaining its thermal and soundproof qualities. PIR insulation is also renowned for its flexible qualities, providing the ideal solution for a range of applications such as floors, walls, pitched and flat roofing. Innovative PIR solutions such as Eurowall+, manufactured by Recticel, features a unique tongue-and-groove joint on the board’s four sides to ensure a tight, secure lock. It means Eurowall+ board increases protection against wind-driven rain which can cause poorly-fitted mineral fibre products to deteriorate over time. Although mineral-based insulation is fairly flexible – it can be manipulated around wall ties, etc – its propensity to degrade over time, particularly if damp sets-in, means rigid PIR board is increasingly seen as a preferable cavity insulation option. It has a long-term cost benefit, too. For mineral wool to attain the same level of thermal performance as Eurowall+ board, it’s estimated 150mm-thick insulation would need to be installed, resulting in an accordant increase in the cavity wall size. Once the cavity width increases, wall-tie lengths have to be lengthened and window and door lintels expanded - the whole building process becomes more costly.  With developers looking to fit as many homes onto allocated plots as possible, maintaining a 100mm cavity in new buildings has become a necessity. Eurowall+ 90mm PIR board not only helps to achieve a 0.18 U-value in a 100mm cavity, the 10mm air gap makes for a less inconvenient fit for bricklayers when it comes to installing the insulation. Therefore, Eurowall+ maximises space whilst minimising cost for housebuilders, making it not only an ideal alternative to mineral-based insulation; it’s the superior PIR solution.  Visit: www.recticelinsulation.co.uk
    106 Posted by Talk. Build
  • The average UK household spends around £1,230 on fuel bills each year which can be up to 50% more than necessary due to the lack of energy saving measures being implemented in the home. Poor insulation is a major contributor to domestic energy wastage. To help combat this, the construction industry is increasingly turning to rigid foam PIR panels, rather than mineral fibre-based insulation solutions. Kevin Bohea, Commercial Director at leading UK PIR manufacturers, lists five ways in which insulation boards offer an advantage over the mineral-based equivalent. PIR insulation board has a closed cell structure that means it doesn’t absorb water. This allows the thermal performance and reliability of the panel to be retained over time. The panels are light and easy to transport as well as being simple to install, helping save on-site labour costs. Unlike fibrous insulation which deteriorates over time when damp sets in, PIR insulation’s structural strength enables a consistent performance that will last the lifetime of a building, negating costly repairs and maintaining its thermal and soundproof qualities. PIR insulation is also renowned for its flexible qualities, providing the ideal solution for a range of applications such as floors, walls, pitched and flat roofing. Innovative PIR solutions such as Eurowall+, manufactured by Recticel, features a unique tongue-and-groove joint on the board’s four sides to ensure a tight, secure lock. It means Eurowall+ board increases protection against wind-driven rain which can cause poorly-fitted mineral fibre products to deteriorate over time. Although mineral-based insulation is fairly flexible – it can be manipulated around wall ties, etc – its propensity to degrade over time, particularly if damp sets-in, means rigid PIR board is increasingly seen as a preferable cavity insulation option. It has a long-term cost benefit, too. For mineral wool to attain the same level of thermal performance as Eurowall+ board, it’s estimated 150mm-thick insulation would need to be installed, resulting in an accordant increase in the cavity wall size. Once the cavity width increases, wall-tie lengths have to be lengthened and window and door lintels expanded - the whole building process becomes more costly.  With developers looking to fit as many homes onto allocated plots as possible, maintaining a 100mm cavity in new buildings has become a necessity. Eurowall+ 90mm PIR board not only helps to achieve a 0.18 U-value in a 100mm cavity, the 10mm air gap makes for a less inconvenient fit for bricklayers when it comes to installing the insulation. Therefore, Eurowall+ maximises space whilst minimising cost for housebuilders, making it not only an ideal alternative to mineral-based insulation; it’s the superior PIR solution.  Visit: www.recticelinsulation.co.uk
    Aug 10, 2018 106
  • 07 Aug 2018
    In the past few years significant progress has been made to make the construction industry accessible to women; whether that be lowering the gender pay-gap or increasing the amount of jobs on offer. Whilst the changes are positive and reassuring, there are still some gender imbalances which need addressing. Baumit, a global building materials manufacturer, is making a commendable effort to make the sector more inclusive for women, standing as a fine example of how the construction industry is levelling-out gender biases in the sector. Whilst the construction industry appears to be heading in the right direction, with women currently accounting for 18.8% of the sector’s workforce compared to 12.1% a decade ago, the figures still show how building and associated trades predominantly remain a man’s world. This is an issue that urgently needs to be addressed, and companies should be focusing on how they can change this. The industry is missing a trick by not tapping into the largely ignored talent pool at its disposal, and further attention needs to be paid to how women can access jobs within the construction industry. Whether by learning the skills to be a plasterer or becoming head of marketing for a building company, there are plenty of opportunities for women. They just need to be highlighted and made available.  A survey commissioned by house builder Keepmoat, for example, revealed that only 13% of women aged 16 to 25 would consider a career in construction. To find out why this figure is so low, certain questions need to be raised. For example, are women not encouraged to enter the industry, or are they simply not being given the right opportunities to make construction their career? Baumit’s current employment ratio of men to women is almost at 50%, showcasing how the company is leading a new generation of building manufacturers that are bringing women into the job sector. At Baumit, employees are hired on merit and credibility and the company is a known advocate for equal pay in the construction industry. Research carried out in 2016 by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors found that on average men earned £11,000 more than women in a similar role. This was up from a pay gap of £7,000 in the same survey a year earlier. At Baumit, both men and women in the same roles are paid similar rates, and both female and male employees are given equal opportunities. This equal environment allows women to cultivate their skillset while working for one of the leading innovators in the built environment. It is important that the construction industry continues to make positive attempts to promote inclusivity in the sector. Organisations such as Women in Roofing seek to inspire and support young women hoping to make their way into the trade. Hopefully, organisations such as this will help dismantle perceptions about the sector being inherently male. The annual Women in Construction conference is another important step, providing a space for discussion on equal rights and female representation throughout the industry. Change is happening because of these timely and honest conversations, but in the meantime, Baumit remains a testament to equal opportunities and gender equality in the construction workplace. Visit:  https://www.baumit.co.uk  
    114 Posted by Talk. Build
  • In the past few years significant progress has been made to make the construction industry accessible to women; whether that be lowering the gender pay-gap or increasing the amount of jobs on offer. Whilst the changes are positive and reassuring, there are still some gender imbalances which need addressing. Baumit, a global building materials manufacturer, is making a commendable effort to make the sector more inclusive for women, standing as a fine example of how the construction industry is levelling-out gender biases in the sector. Whilst the construction industry appears to be heading in the right direction, with women currently accounting for 18.8% of the sector’s workforce compared to 12.1% a decade ago, the figures still show how building and associated trades predominantly remain a man’s world. This is an issue that urgently needs to be addressed, and companies should be focusing on how they can change this. The industry is missing a trick by not tapping into the largely ignored talent pool at its disposal, and further attention needs to be paid to how women can access jobs within the construction industry. Whether by learning the skills to be a plasterer or becoming head of marketing for a building company, there are plenty of opportunities for women. They just need to be highlighted and made available.  A survey commissioned by house builder Keepmoat, for example, revealed that only 13% of women aged 16 to 25 would consider a career in construction. To find out why this figure is so low, certain questions need to be raised. For example, are women not encouraged to enter the industry, or are they simply not being given the right opportunities to make construction their career? Baumit’s current employment ratio of men to women is almost at 50%, showcasing how the company is leading a new generation of building manufacturers that are bringing women into the job sector. At Baumit, employees are hired on merit and credibility and the company is a known advocate for equal pay in the construction industry. Research carried out in 2016 by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors found that on average men earned £11,000 more than women in a similar role. This was up from a pay gap of £7,000 in the same survey a year earlier. At Baumit, both men and women in the same roles are paid similar rates, and both female and male employees are given equal opportunities. This equal environment allows women to cultivate their skillset while working for one of the leading innovators in the built environment. It is important that the construction industry continues to make positive attempts to promote inclusivity in the sector. Organisations such as Women in Roofing seek to inspire and support young women hoping to make their way into the trade. Hopefully, organisations such as this will help dismantle perceptions about the sector being inherently male. The annual Women in Construction conference is another important step, providing a space for discussion on equal rights and female representation throughout the industry. Change is happening because of these timely and honest conversations, but in the meantime, Baumit remains a testament to equal opportunities and gender equality in the construction workplace. Visit:  https://www.baumit.co.uk  
    Aug 07, 2018 114
  • 03 Aug 2018
    With ever-greater pressure being applied to the private and commercial sector purse strings, the need for building projects to be completed on time without minimum fuss becomes more significant writes James Wilkinson. There is little margin for error for contractors working to tighter-than-before deadlines, and that includes ensuring the correct specification of a waterproof, durable flat roof system. But what are the challenges facing architects and contractors when selecting suitable flat roof insulation? And why do such roofs sometimes fail?  As a building’s first line of defence and prominent thermal feature, a roof must maintain long-term, maximum performance. Therefore, every aspect of its installation should be considered to ensure it remains watertight, problem-free and energy-efficient during its lifetime. The specification of bespoke, single-layer tapered systems can help alleviate risk when it comes to flat roofing. This outcome is easiest and best achieved in conjunction with Gradient, a specialist roof insulation manufacturer which works closely with customers on the design and manufacture of tapered solutions for a wide range of roofing applications. Fitting solution Placing the insulation process - from start to finish - into the hands of highly-experienced and skilled professionals not only maximises control standards in roof design, manufacture, performance and sustainability, it results in a better-conceived flat roof which is improved in value, performance and complies with all relevant legislative standards. Gradient is able to supply specialist technical support to provide customers with flat roof solutions - whatever a roofing project’s stage. However, it’s fair to say most problems occur when clients fail to engage such companies at the very start of the roof specification process which minimises the risk of future problems. The close proximity of door thresholds to roof decks, for example can result in underperforming U-values and is a common issue. It’s an oversight which can lead to water-ponding and possible insect infestation, but can easily be avoided with early involvement from Gradient. In such cases, a tapered roof insulation scheme can be applied, but the thermal performance will not be as good as it ought to be due to the aforementioned fault at the design stage. Encouraging developers to consider roof insulation performance long before they start construction is key to trouble-free roofing. When a building’s shell and certain fixtures and fittings are in position before roofing issues have been fully-addressed, it can often lead to height limitations being imposed on the insulation installed. Thus, flat guttering, the same thickness as the insulation is seen as a solution. Whilst this might be seen as a perfectly acceptable system for installers, developers would quite reasonably prefer a completely run-dry roof on which water is pushed to all available outlets. Condensing the risk Constraints on insulation height will sometimes rule-out the use of a fully-tapered roofing scheme, therefore a compromise on a particular roofing detail may have to be reached. It could lead to a roof design which doesn’t necessarily reflect best practice, but is nonetheless the best scheme with all factors considered. Compromise can take the form of a lower U-value, or the installation of a hybrid roof scheme in which insulation is applied below the deck. The latter solution is not ideal, as condensation is often a by-product. However, roofing firms such as Gradient are able to carry out calculations for a hybrid roof that will eliminate the risk of condensation. Whichever roofing insulation specified, its performance is only as good as the installer. Selecting a proven contractor to carry out installation work is vital - a task becoming more challenging by the day with Britain facing its biggest skills shortage for a generation, particularly in the roofing industry. If a contractor omits to fully-tackle air gaps, for example, in a perfectly-designed roof, the potential for condensation remains. Stark assessment For developer, contractor and customer, time is money in the construction industry. However, quality must not be lost in the rush to reach the deadline. For refurbishment projects in which an existing roof is overlaid, Gradient is able to design a tapered scheme, with surveys made all the easier due to the visibility of the building’s falls. It’s part of the company’s service to carry out the same assessment when a roof is stripped to its deck. Time restrictions will often lead to contractors refusing the offer of a second visit, even though the stripped roof could reveal a deck to be damaged or uneven and in need of a rethink as to how the insulation should be applied to improve its long-term performance. Again, the answer is good preparation. Building extra time into a roof’s installation before installers arrive on site will help avoid unseen issues which may crop-up as the process continues. Quality roof insulation, which protects against the ravages of the elements and time, as part of a long-term, waterproof system, doesn’t arrive by accident - it’s most definitely the result of excellent design and installation. Visit: http://gradientuk.com About the author: James Wilkinson is Design Team Leader at Gradient  
    171 Posted by Talk. Build
  • With ever-greater pressure being applied to the private and commercial sector purse strings, the need for building projects to be completed on time without minimum fuss becomes more significant writes James Wilkinson. There is little margin for error for contractors working to tighter-than-before deadlines, and that includes ensuring the correct specification of a waterproof, durable flat roof system. But what are the challenges facing architects and contractors when selecting suitable flat roof insulation? And why do such roofs sometimes fail?  As a building’s first line of defence and prominent thermal feature, a roof must maintain long-term, maximum performance. Therefore, every aspect of its installation should be considered to ensure it remains watertight, problem-free and energy-efficient during its lifetime. The specification of bespoke, single-layer tapered systems can help alleviate risk when it comes to flat roofing. This outcome is easiest and best achieved in conjunction with Gradient, a specialist roof insulation manufacturer which works closely with customers on the design and manufacture of tapered solutions for a wide range of roofing applications. Fitting solution Placing the insulation process - from start to finish - into the hands of highly-experienced and skilled professionals not only maximises control standards in roof design, manufacture, performance and sustainability, it results in a better-conceived flat roof which is improved in value, performance and complies with all relevant legislative standards. Gradient is able to supply specialist technical support to provide customers with flat roof solutions - whatever a roofing project’s stage. However, it’s fair to say most problems occur when clients fail to engage such companies at the very start of the roof specification process which minimises the risk of future problems. The close proximity of door thresholds to roof decks, for example can result in underperforming U-values and is a common issue. It’s an oversight which can lead to water-ponding and possible insect infestation, but can easily be avoided with early involvement from Gradient. In such cases, a tapered roof insulation scheme can be applied, but the thermal performance will not be as good as it ought to be due to the aforementioned fault at the design stage. Encouraging developers to consider roof insulation performance long before they start construction is key to trouble-free roofing. When a building’s shell and certain fixtures and fittings are in position before roofing issues have been fully-addressed, it can often lead to height limitations being imposed on the insulation installed. Thus, flat guttering, the same thickness as the insulation is seen as a solution. Whilst this might be seen as a perfectly acceptable system for installers, developers would quite reasonably prefer a completely run-dry roof on which water is pushed to all available outlets. Condensing the risk Constraints on insulation height will sometimes rule-out the use of a fully-tapered roofing scheme, therefore a compromise on a particular roofing detail may have to be reached. It could lead to a roof design which doesn’t necessarily reflect best practice, but is nonetheless the best scheme with all factors considered. Compromise can take the form of a lower U-value, or the installation of a hybrid roof scheme in which insulation is applied below the deck. The latter solution is not ideal, as condensation is often a by-product. However, roofing firms such as Gradient are able to carry out calculations for a hybrid roof that will eliminate the risk of condensation. Whichever roofing insulation specified, its performance is only as good as the installer. Selecting a proven contractor to carry out installation work is vital - a task becoming more challenging by the day with Britain facing its biggest skills shortage for a generation, particularly in the roofing industry. If a contractor omits to fully-tackle air gaps, for example, in a perfectly-designed roof, the potential for condensation remains. Stark assessment For developer, contractor and customer, time is money in the construction industry. However, quality must not be lost in the rush to reach the deadline. For refurbishment projects in which an existing roof is overlaid, Gradient is able to design a tapered scheme, with surveys made all the easier due to the visibility of the building’s falls. It’s part of the company’s service to carry out the same assessment when a roof is stripped to its deck. Time restrictions will often lead to contractors refusing the offer of a second visit, even though the stripped roof could reveal a deck to be damaged or uneven and in need of a rethink as to how the insulation should be applied to improve its long-term performance. Again, the answer is good preparation. Building extra time into a roof’s installation before installers arrive on site will help avoid unseen issues which may crop-up as the process continues. Quality roof insulation, which protects against the ravages of the elements and time, as part of a long-term, waterproof system, doesn’t arrive by accident - it’s most definitely the result of excellent design and installation. Visit: http://gradientuk.com About the author: James Wilkinson is Design Team Leader at Gradient  
    Aug 03, 2018 171
  • 02 Aug 2018
    The construction industry is struggling with its image writes Jayne Hall.  The media coverage of Grenfell and the collapse of Carillion are all negative stories which fuel a general outlook which is not good for the industry as a whole. Even a TV programme like Cowboy Builders paints a picture of an unattractive industry that hasn’t got a grip on itself.  Unfortunately that’s what prevails in people’s minds and it’s a stereotypical perception. It’s hardly surprising then the industry’s ever-widening skills shortage is getting worse. Modernisation should be the order of the day and with that it should be addressing what is sadly the worst gender balance of any industry.  So how can we challenge the typical, often negative stereotypes of an industry where less than 14% of workers are women? Dirty, dangerous and macho is the age-old, stereotypical image of construction and many women, even now, think that they will get wolf-whistled or ogled when they pass a building site.  But that is not the reality; it’s something that happens rarely. In fact, it hardly ever happens. Thankfully, the construction sector has moved on from this scenario and there are positive advances. There remains however a pressing need to do more to encourage gender diversity in the workplace, which in turn will make it more attractive. As someone who champions inclusivity for CABE, I firmly believe the industry needs to sharpen up its image and make itself appear attractive to women and ethnic minorities. Despite construction being one of the largest employees in the UK, progress is slow. It needs to come across as more professional and dispel the myths of misogyny and glass ceilings. Of course this is much broader than construction - industries as a whole are reducing their talent pool.  Diversity is a key driver of innovation.  A report on gender diversity by Mckinsey called Women Matter, suggests that the companies where women are most strongly represented at board or top management level are the same companies that perform best. The more diversity you have on a team, the more experienced and broader you are.  Otherwise it is self-limiting.    At fifteen or sixteen years old young people are asked to choose options but the stereotypes discourage them. They don’t want to be outnumbered and the only girl on a physics or technology course for example. Educational institutions need to address this imbalance to get true equality. Girls end up making unconscious assumptions but if you can engage them earlier to tackle these limiting and harmful gender stereotypes, it will encourage girls into the profession. Sadly colleges don’t do as much as they should to attract and encourage women on engineering courses. A young girl would have to encounter the uncomfortable situation of walking into a male dominated classroom.  The lack of encouragement, and a curriculum that isn’t inclusive as it should be, has meant we are damaging both the potential of women but also the potential of the economy as a whole.  We need to show young women there is a career path at every level. By fully understanding that diversity within the built environment is a contributing factor to the skills shortage and other issues, CABE plays an active role in reaching out to a diverse audience and ensuring we make the case for a truly inclusive built environment which caters for all.   With the 100th anniversary of women having the vote, gender equality and diversity is high on the agenda. The engineering profession as a whole is making progress on gender and inclusivity with many women, like myself, who have forged happy and successful careers in engineering. It’s a great industry to be part of.  Tackling gender diversity will widen the talent pipeline, improve the image of the sector and will go some way to tackling the skills shortage. Visit:www.cbuilde.com. About the author: Jayne Hall is Building Control and Planning Enforcement Manager for South Gloucestershire Council  
    166 Posted by Talk. Build
  • The construction industry is struggling with its image writes Jayne Hall.  The media coverage of Grenfell and the collapse of Carillion are all negative stories which fuel a general outlook which is not good for the industry as a whole. Even a TV programme like Cowboy Builders paints a picture of an unattractive industry that hasn’t got a grip on itself.  Unfortunately that’s what prevails in people’s minds and it’s a stereotypical perception. It’s hardly surprising then the industry’s ever-widening skills shortage is getting worse. Modernisation should be the order of the day and with that it should be addressing what is sadly the worst gender balance of any industry.  So how can we challenge the typical, often negative stereotypes of an industry where less than 14% of workers are women? Dirty, dangerous and macho is the age-old, stereotypical image of construction and many women, even now, think that they will get wolf-whistled or ogled when they pass a building site.  But that is not the reality; it’s something that happens rarely. In fact, it hardly ever happens. Thankfully, the construction sector has moved on from this scenario and there are positive advances. There remains however a pressing need to do more to encourage gender diversity in the workplace, which in turn will make it more attractive. As someone who champions inclusivity for CABE, I firmly believe the industry needs to sharpen up its image and make itself appear attractive to women and ethnic minorities. Despite construction being one of the largest employees in the UK, progress is slow. It needs to come across as more professional and dispel the myths of misogyny and glass ceilings. Of course this is much broader than construction - industries as a whole are reducing their talent pool.  Diversity is a key driver of innovation.  A report on gender diversity by Mckinsey called Women Matter, suggests that the companies where women are most strongly represented at board or top management level are the same companies that perform best. The more diversity you have on a team, the more experienced and broader you are.  Otherwise it is self-limiting.    At fifteen or sixteen years old young people are asked to choose options but the stereotypes discourage them. They don’t want to be outnumbered and the only girl on a physics or technology course for example. Educational institutions need to address this imbalance to get true equality. Girls end up making unconscious assumptions but if you can engage them earlier to tackle these limiting and harmful gender stereotypes, it will encourage girls into the profession. Sadly colleges don’t do as much as they should to attract and encourage women on engineering courses. A young girl would have to encounter the uncomfortable situation of walking into a male dominated classroom.  The lack of encouragement, and a curriculum that isn’t inclusive as it should be, has meant we are damaging both the potential of women but also the potential of the economy as a whole.  We need to show young women there is a career path at every level. By fully understanding that diversity within the built environment is a contributing factor to the skills shortage and other issues, CABE plays an active role in reaching out to a diverse audience and ensuring we make the case for a truly inclusive built environment which caters for all.   With the 100th anniversary of women having the vote, gender equality and diversity is high on the agenda. The engineering profession as a whole is making progress on gender and inclusivity with many women, like myself, who have forged happy and successful careers in engineering. It’s a great industry to be part of.  Tackling gender diversity will widen the talent pipeline, improve the image of the sector and will go some way to tackling the skills shortage. Visit:www.cbuilde.com. About the author: Jayne Hall is Building Control and Planning Enforcement Manager for South Gloucestershire Council  
    Aug 02, 2018 166
  • 01 Aug 2018
    When you look on a food label, chances are you will see some ingredients you have never heard of, some of which you might even find hard to pronounce. Found in many products, silicon dioxide or silica is, for example, one such ingredient writes Gregory A. Cade . What is silica? Silica is a natural element, composed of two of the earth’s most common materials: oxygen and silicon, more precisely: one atom of silicon and two atoms of oxygen – from where the chemical formula SiO2. Quartz represents the most ordinary form of crystalline silica and is the second most common mineral on earth. It is found in almost every type of rock and thus in nearly all mining operations. The first industrial use of silica was most likely related to the glass making activity in three to five thousand years BC. It continued to support progress throughout history, being an important factor in the industrial revolution, especially in the construction, ceramic and glass industries and it contributes even today in key branches of technology, providing material for silicon chips and computer mice. Quartz is the solely natural silica mineral used in significant quantity: millions of tons are annually consumed by industry. Crushed sandstone is used in the construction of roads and railways, relatively pure quartz is important as ingredient for glass and porcelain manufacture and high purity quartz is fused to achieve premium optical glass. Quartz and its derivatives were also used since antiquity as semiprecious gems or ornamental stones. Precious opal, which is a form of silica, has been a gemstone since the Roman period. When does silica represent a danger? Silica is found in many materials from construction sites, including sand, soil, concrete, rock or granite. The dust created when any of those materials are drilled, cut or disturbed in any way can contain small silica particles. The particles are so small that they cannot even be seen and it can take only a minor amount of airborne silica dust in order to create a health problem. Yet it is important to know that repeated exposures to silica dust can even raise the chances of developing a serious lung disease. What kind of diseases can silica lead to? Extended and aggressive exposure to fine particles of silica dust can lead to the very well known occupational illness called silicosis, but lung cancer, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or even autoimmune diseases cannot be ignored as well. Silicosis is one of the world’s oldest occupational illnesses. It is a nodular progressive fibrosis caused by the deposition of fine respirable silica particles in the lungs. This disease mainly affects people exposed in the workplace, as environmental exposures to silica dust are not dangerous enough to cause this occupational disease. Because silicosis has a very long latency period, the new cases registered today are due to exposure of a few decades ago. There is no specific treatment, removing the source of exposure is often important in preventing the disease from getting worse. Any potential cancer risk due to respirable crystalline silica exposure is limited to lung cancer and any cancer effect is actually secondary to silicosis. A recent study determined that between 3,600 and 7,300 cases of silicosis occur annually in the United States. The Environmental Litigation Group, P.C. has successfully represented people with silica-related diseases, so if you have been diagnosed with such an illness, they are able to help you file an action against responsible parties. The most common silica containing products A lot of materials contain silica and when they are used in large quantities at workplace, they can generate silica dust. Among these materials are abrasives, concrete, dirt, coal dust, filter aids, natural graphite, mineral products, paint, pavement, asphalt, cosmetics, cleansers, bricks and tiles. Who is at risk? Industries where significant amounts of respirable silica dust are present include mining, quarrying, mineral processing, bricks and tiles and constructions. So the people who are at risk in developing a silica-related illness are mainly workers from these occupational fields. Another important aspect is that the response of an individual is likely to depend on the nature of the silica dust, the dust fraction, the duration and frequency of the exposure and also the smoking habits. “People should be well aware of the dangers silica particles actually represent and to protect themselves accordingly by avoiding industrial sites that perform high-energy operations such as cutting, drilling or crushing stone or by carefully reading the list of ingredients from cleansers or cosmetics.” said Gregory Cade, attorney specializing in asbestos and environmental law.  However, if you or a loved one have already been exposed to silica dust and unfortunately have developed a silica related illness, you should seek medical attention right away and waste no time in contacting a law firm for legal representation, as it would not be advisable to let reckless companies get away with it. About the author: Gregory A. Cade has been an attorney for over 20 years, specializing in environmental, mesothelioma & asbestos law. His firm, Environmental Litigation Group, has processed over 200.000 claims and has recovered more than $1 billion for asbestos victims. Gregory always treats his clients with professionalism and compassion and he always fights to ensure that they get the help they need.
    143 Posted by Talk. Build
  • When you look on a food label, chances are you will see some ingredients you have never heard of, some of which you might even find hard to pronounce. Found in many products, silicon dioxide or silica is, for example, one such ingredient writes Gregory A. Cade . What is silica? Silica is a natural element, composed of two of the earth’s most common materials: oxygen and silicon, more precisely: one atom of silicon and two atoms of oxygen – from where the chemical formula SiO2. Quartz represents the most ordinary form of crystalline silica and is the second most common mineral on earth. It is found in almost every type of rock and thus in nearly all mining operations. The first industrial use of silica was most likely related to the glass making activity in three to five thousand years BC. It continued to support progress throughout history, being an important factor in the industrial revolution, especially in the construction, ceramic and glass industries and it contributes even today in key branches of technology, providing material for silicon chips and computer mice. Quartz is the solely natural silica mineral used in significant quantity: millions of tons are annually consumed by industry. Crushed sandstone is used in the construction of roads and railways, relatively pure quartz is important as ingredient for glass and porcelain manufacture and high purity quartz is fused to achieve premium optical glass. Quartz and its derivatives were also used since antiquity as semiprecious gems or ornamental stones. Precious opal, which is a form of silica, has been a gemstone since the Roman period. When does silica represent a danger? Silica is found in many materials from construction sites, including sand, soil, concrete, rock or granite. The dust created when any of those materials are drilled, cut or disturbed in any way can contain small silica particles. The particles are so small that they cannot even be seen and it can take only a minor amount of airborne silica dust in order to create a health problem. Yet it is important to know that repeated exposures to silica dust can even raise the chances of developing a serious lung disease. What kind of diseases can silica lead to? Extended and aggressive exposure to fine particles of silica dust can lead to the very well known occupational illness called silicosis, but lung cancer, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or even autoimmune diseases cannot be ignored as well. Silicosis is one of the world’s oldest occupational illnesses. It is a nodular progressive fibrosis caused by the deposition of fine respirable silica particles in the lungs. This disease mainly affects people exposed in the workplace, as environmental exposures to silica dust are not dangerous enough to cause this occupational disease. Because silicosis has a very long latency period, the new cases registered today are due to exposure of a few decades ago. There is no specific treatment, removing the source of exposure is often important in preventing the disease from getting worse. Any potential cancer risk due to respirable crystalline silica exposure is limited to lung cancer and any cancer effect is actually secondary to silicosis. A recent study determined that between 3,600 and 7,300 cases of silicosis occur annually in the United States. The Environmental Litigation Group, P.C. has successfully represented people with silica-related diseases, so if you have been diagnosed with such an illness, they are able to help you file an action against responsible parties. The most common silica containing products A lot of materials contain silica and when they are used in large quantities at workplace, they can generate silica dust. Among these materials are abrasives, concrete, dirt, coal dust, filter aids, natural graphite, mineral products, paint, pavement, asphalt, cosmetics, cleansers, bricks and tiles. Who is at risk? Industries where significant amounts of respirable silica dust are present include mining, quarrying, mineral processing, bricks and tiles and constructions. So the people who are at risk in developing a silica-related illness are mainly workers from these occupational fields. Another important aspect is that the response of an individual is likely to depend on the nature of the silica dust, the dust fraction, the duration and frequency of the exposure and also the smoking habits. “People should be well aware of the dangers silica particles actually represent and to protect themselves accordingly by avoiding industrial sites that perform high-energy operations such as cutting, drilling or crushing stone or by carefully reading the list of ingredients from cleansers or cosmetics.” said Gregory Cade, attorney specializing in asbestos and environmental law.  However, if you or a loved one have already been exposed to silica dust and unfortunately have developed a silica related illness, you should seek medical attention right away and waste no time in contacting a law firm for legal representation, as it would not be advisable to let reckless companies get away with it. About the author: Gregory A. Cade has been an attorney for over 20 years, specializing in environmental, mesothelioma & asbestos law. His firm, Environmental Litigation Group, has processed over 200.000 claims and has recovered more than $1 billion for asbestos victims. Gregory always treats his clients with professionalism and compassion and he always fights to ensure that they get the help they need.
    Aug 01, 2018 143

  • Once you have planned where your shed will go you need to make sure you have all the right tools and products to complete the job such as: Pegs and string Building sand Standard cement Timber for base formwork Tape measure Spade Sweeping brush 1. Prepare the base When you do this allow enough distance from hedges or fences for easy access to all sides. Use the pegs and string to mark out a base 2” (5 cm) larger than the area of the building on each side. Make sure the area is square by using a level diagonally across the area 2. Pay attention to the hardcore Ensure that you have at least 3” (7.5 cm) of compacted hardcore underneath a 3″ concrete layer. The base can be level with the ground or raised above it. If you want it to be level, dig to a depth of 6” (15 cm), to allow for the hardcore layer and 3” (7.5 cm) of concrete. Level the area with a rake and spade and remove the pegs. 3. Make sure it’s level Measure, cut and fit timber to the shape of the base in order to contain the concrete. Check diagonal measurements to ensure the formwork is square and level as this will determine whether your shed base is 100% sturdy. Spread the hardcore and cover with a good level of sand. Ensure it is well compacted and flattened using a compacting tool or roller. 4: Next the concrete Mix concrete using one part cement to five parts all-in-one ballast, or use bags of dry-mixed concrete and just add water. Be careful not to add too much water as this may make the cement too runny. Spread the concrete evenly and slightly above the formwork. This can be then levelled off with a long straight edge of timber resting on the formwork. Use a sawing motion slowly over the entire surface of the freshly laid concrete. In extreme weather conditions – both hot and cold – ensure that you base is covered to allow it to cure slowly, minimising the risk if shrinking or cracking – and there you have it – the perfect base for your new shed. You could of course then decide to build your own shed but as we discussed earlier – why would you want to when there are so many brilliant alternatives that have been prefabricated offsite and ready to be place on your new base. Talk.Build never makes recommendations but as a starting point you might want to visit:  Sheds
    Jul 30, 2018 47
  • We have seen many different types of architectural software over recent years and while it seems that most do very good jobs there have also been many adverse comments that products are not delivering. Understandably most professionals are confused with the wide range of products on offer. Many look at niche options which do not quite hit the mark but with the right software and a modern computer, the entire plan of a building can be rendered and checked for structural and design flaws before it even leaves the drawing board. This is more efficient, less wasteful, and a lot more convenient as well. BIM Modelling has also demanded that architects design and produce in both 2D and 3D and as a result there have been major development in design software which allows professionals to draw and visualise house floor plans more quickly and easily One such company, Elecosoft, seems to have gone further than most with its own bespoke package, “Arcon Evo”, which combines visual design, professional CAD capabilities and clear project execution in a single program. The new software also offers an extensive range of architectural CAD tools for all aspects of building design allowing architects to construct to the smallest level of detail. It also produces detailed plans, automated 3D models, elevations, section details and working drawings and much more. At the front end it will also generate detailed drawing sets for planning applications with many additional features which many of my colleagues in the trade press are endorsing as a major leap forward. To some extent I guess I am doing the same but rather than list all the benefits, which can be seen on the company’s website – the link is featured at the bottom of this article - I am more interested in how architects themselves have responded. In the past, as mentioned earlier, we have seen many different software packages which all claim to bring architects and building professionals into the 21st Century but have failed to deliver when it matters. According to the professionals “Arcon Evo” does exactly what it says on the tin and is more than capable of producing detailed 2D and 3D designs and it seems a whole lot more. Guess it is down to our readers to decide. Visit: www.3darchitect.co.uk
    Jul 26, 2018 138
  • Once water begins to come through the roof most sheds, by the very nature of their soft wood structure, quickly rot and if remedial action is not taken then most will soon be looking for a replacement. Replacing a felt roof is not as hard as it looks and only requires basic DIY skills and a little help from a friend or neighbour. Simply follow these easy steps and your shed will be as good as new. You will need at least half a day to complete the project and will require Shed Felt, Roofing Felt Adhesive and Clout Head Nails. Make sure you also have the right tools such as a tape measure, sharp knife gloves, an old cloth, straight edge hammer 2” or 3” and a disposable paint brush. Before you start clean and tidy up the surrounding area, including the floor. To ensure you are properly prepared for later, unpack and roll your shed felt onto a clean and dry surface. This allows it to relax or straighten after being rolled up. Roofing felt is harder to work at low temperature so try to avoid working with it below 10° or in wet or windy conditions. Prepare the surface of the shed roof by removing any old roof felt or nails. Ensure the surface is flat, clean and dry. If the roof is rotten or damaged, you may want to apply a complete new sheet of ply. Measure your shed by running a tape measure along the bottom of the roof (the eaves), and up the diagonal end (the gable). Write down these measurements (it’s easiest to use metric as shed felt normally comes in 8m or 10m rolls). Remember too that you will need the felt to overhang each gable end, and the eave of the shed by at least 50mm (so you need to add this to your measurements). Calculate how many lengths of roof felt are needed: The felt will be applied in strips, with each strip overlapping the previous one by at least 75mm. A final length sheet will be required along the ridge. Calculate how many strips and of what length you will need. Cut your roof felt to length: Using your straight edge and sharp knife, carefully cut your felt to the correct length (don’t forget to include the extra 50mm overhang at each end!) Nail on the first length: Position the first length of roof felt along the lowest part of the shed roof. Ensure that it overhangs the eaves and each gable end of the roof by 50mm. Nail along the top edge of the strip with the galvanised clout nails. Space the nails at 500mm centres. Fold over the gables and eaves: Starting at the centre of the eave, and taking care not to rip or tear the felt, fold the overhanging felt over the edge of the roof. Fix the overhanging felt using galvanised nails at 50mm. Fix the next length of shed felt: Take your second length of felt. Position this strip so that it overhangs the top of the first sheet by 75mm. Nail along the top of this strip at 500mm. Where the sheets overlap, apply roofing sheet adhesive using a disposable brush. Using a downwards brushing motion, firmly press the top layer of roofing felt onto the adhesive, taking care to ensure that the strip of felt does not ripple or crease. Nail in place at 50mm spacing along the bottom of the strip. Use an old cloth or rag to remove any excess felt adhesive. Continue to work up the complete side of the roof in the same method. Felt the second side of your shed: Repeat the same process for the opposite side of the roof. Fix the capping sheet: The roof should be finished with a capping sheet along the ridge. Place along the ridge of the shed so that it equally overhangs each side of the roof. Always ensure that it overlays the top strips of felt by at least 75mm. Apply roofing felt adhesive to the underside of both sides of the ridge and press the capping sheet into place. Nail along the bottom of each side of the capping sheet at 50mm intervals. And that is all there is to it to ensure that your shed continues to provides many more years of useful life. You can source the materials you need from most local builders merchants or go on line. You can click the link below to Amazon to a supplier that has a five star rating if you prefer to have materials delivered. Click Link for Amazon
    Apr 25, 2018 246
  • Roofs, conservatories, balconies, terraces and walls are extremely prone to water penetration and left alone will ultimately result in major refurbishment. Until fairly recently construction professionals would use a variety of different sealants to tackle an equally wide variety of leak situations, but thankfully science has come to the rescue. There are several companies that have developed advanced ranges of waterproofing solutions that can be simply brushed or rolled onto surfaces, seeping into cracks and other vulnerable areas to produce a barrier, once fully cured, against even the worst weather. Many of these solutions are transparent and virtually invisible once applied which makes them ideal for all types of glass such as conservatory roofs and roof lights. They can also be used on terraces and exposed brickwork helping to enhance the colour of the stone while adding total protection. The good thing is that such solutions can be applied by without any special skills saving householders massive labour costs, but as in all cases, particularly when a leak is at roof level, it is usually best to call in the professionals. If you are planning to do it yourself then make sure that you have enough material; to complete the job. A 20Kg tin will cover around 25 sq metres of surface area depending on the thickness of the coating. Ensure that everything is cleaned up before any solution is laid to ensure maximum performance and ideally three layers should be used on the surface area. Coverage is based on application by roller onto a smooth surface in optimum conditions. Factors like surface porosity, temperature and application method can alter consumption. Installed correctly your roof, conservatory, balcony, terrace or wall will continue to giver many more years of service keeping out the worst of the weather.  If you are looking for such a product then why not check out Maritrans, which is available via Amazon.  Click here for Amazon
    Apr 24, 2018 223
  • It is easier than it looks to build a raised timber deck.  Timber decks can be designed to meet most design situations. According to the Timber Decking and Cladding Association Desired service life options of 15, 30 and 60 years are given in European/British standards. It should be noted that 15 years is considered to be the minimum standard.  For new the NHBC insists on a 60 year service life in accordance with TDCA Code of Practice TDA/RD 08/01. Building a simple timber deck is straightforward and is considered less expensive and more environmentally acceptable than bricks or flagstones. The following step-by-step guide covers and is consistent with most of the basic applications to install timber decking and while these instructions are for guidance only please always remember to check with supplier specifications. Step 1: Make sure you plan in advance to ensure that boards will be flush with your frame. Prepare a level area for the framework by cutting the timber to the required length, then join using exterior wood screws. Check the frame is square by measuring from corner to corner and adjust if necessary Step 2: If you need to raise the frame, cut four blocks of timber to the desired height. Screw these to the inside of the frame at each corner, ensuring they're flush with the top. As these legs will be taking all the weight ensure you use at least three screws per block, Step 3: Place blocks or slabs underneath edge leg to spread the load and provide a level, stable base if your deck is sitting on grass or soil. Position and adjust checking the frame is level using a spirit level Step 4: Three joists are sufficient (one in the middle and the others at the centre-point between the edge of the frame and the centre joist) if you are building a small deck. Mark across one side of the frame first, then repeat on the opposite side. On larger decks, set joists at 400mm centres Step 5: Ensure that you measure across the inside of the frame at the joist marks before cutting lengths of the timber to suit. Fix the joists by tapping them with a rubber based mallet until flush with the top, then screw them in place from the outside of the frame Step 6: Support the joists with additional legs, spaced at 1m intervals. Follow the same method as shown in steps 2 and 3 for these legs, ensuring each is supported by a suitable block or slab Step 7: For the facing, measure the length of the outer sides of your frame and cut the decking boards to suit. Mark the cutting lines with a square to ensure a straight edge. Countersink the facing and screw to the frame, ensuring the facing is flush with the top Step 8: Now you are ready to start laying the deck. Measure across the top of the frame and cut a board to length. Place the first board flush with the outside edge of the frame and facing, and perpendicular to the joists. Mark the location of each joist on the board Step 9: Mark and countersink screw holes over the centre of each joist. Be sure to use a sharp countersink that will leave a clean hole. If necessary, drill a pilot hole to prevent splitting. Use at least two screws per joist for each decking board Step 10: Ensure you have a 5mm expansion gap between each board (as timber expands and contracts according to outdoor temperatures). Use a spacer to do this. Step 11: Continue the process until you have completed the job. There are many different sources for Timber Decking but we recomend the following link to AMAZON. Click here for Amazon
    Sep 16, 2017 1269
  • Horrible looking drains, manhole covers and inspection chambers appear in driveways and footpaths everywhere. You can even find them in the middle of your lawn or garden! How do you hide ugly manhole covers and drains?                     There are several ways to pretty up these ugly necessities but, however you choose to do it, remember that water utility companies require access at all times. If they cannot be accessed when required they will be dug up and not only will you receive a bill for doing so, you will also be left with the expense of repairing any damage. A much better idea is to (where possible) replace the existing industrial looking cover with a removable recessed (or inset) tray. Then you have the option to either blend them in with the surface or make a feature out of them. Recessed tray options A quick internet search will show you just how many different types of recessed trays are available – too many to mention here! You choose depending on where they are and what material you are going to fill them with. Basically they fall into two categories: Standard recessed tray Currently the most popular choice, made from polypropylene, aluminium or stainless steel and can be suitable for use by both pedestrians and vehicles. Permeable recessed tray This more recent option from EcoGrid provides a load bearing surface that features membranes and a perforated base which allows water to slowly filter through to the drain underneath. Infill options Another internet search will result in a lot of options for infilling a recessed tray. Your final choice will depend on where the drain, manhole cover or inspection chamber is and what the surface will be used for. Here are a few of the most popular infill options: Block paving or bricks These are common choices and can be cut to either blend in or contrast with the surrounding surface. Resin bound paving This is the most popular choice for the seamless finish - created by infilling the recessed tray with the same colour aggregate. You can also create contrast by using a different colour or produce a logo or design in the recessed tray. Using a permeable recessed tray with resin bound paving creates a fully permeable surface. Loose gravel Probably the quickest and easiest way to infill a recessed tray is with loose gravel, but it will inevitably scatter. The fleeing gravel will need regular sweeping and replacing and your lawn mower won’t like it much either... Grass Whilst sowing grass seeds into a recessed tray blends in with a lawn it can be awkward to mow and unless it’s sown in a permeable recessed tray, it will dry out very quickly. Of course you could opt for artificial grass… Plants and flowers Infilling with flowers and/or plants can help disguise unsightly drains, manhole covers or inspection chambers. You can also create a spectacular feature, but as with grass they will dry out very quickly unless a permeable recessed tray is used. Useful links: How to build a recessed manhole cover : http://www.diy.com/help-ideas/how-to-build-a-manhole-cover/CC_npcart_400198.art An overview http://www.pavingexpert.com/recess01.htm  from the Paving Expert. We strongly recommend clarifying ownership and responsibility before modifying or carrying out maintenance to drains, sewers and manholes. Author: Gail Gilkes, Head of Marketing, SureSet UK Ltd. Visit: www.sureset.co.uk Follow us: https://twitter.com/SureSetUK https://www.youtube.com/user/SureSetUK15 https://www.linkedin.com/company-beta/1220581/
    Sep 14, 2017 1847